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Makefile

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A makefile is a script run by make (or nmake under windows) that contains information about the dependencies of a series of targets and, additionally, makes them. For example, make can build the binaries for a large software project.

Syntax

Here's the syntax to use the make command:

make Target
make -C Subdir Target
make -f filename Target

(ex: make -f mymakefile all).

In most projects in linux, the most common targets are:

  • all: builds the full project.
  • install: copies the executable files in their final destination on the system.
  • clean: deletes the object and the executable files created by target all.

NOTE: Here's how to ignore built-in pattern rules!!

> make -r target

This is very important for the following rules:

%.o : %.c
%.dvi : %.aux

A large project cross-platform, cross-compiler makefile methodology

Here is described a CCCP makefile methodology particularly suitable for MOHID.

Sample makefiles

In particular, the gnumake program is very documented here.

Mohid_Base_1

The source code of a sample Makefile is given bellow: [makefile,Y]

#
#  Use GNUmake! 
#  Win32: rename gmake.exe to make.exe and load ifortvars.bat
#  *nix: load ifortvars.sh
#
 
SHELL = /bin/sh 

.SUFFIXES:
.SUFFIXES: .f90 .o

DEL = rm -f

BIN = ./bin
MOD = ./mod
SRC = .
OBJ = .

#-----Users: edit these lines!!!----------
#*nix vs windows
#Uncomment one of these
#HDF5     = ../IntelLibs
#MODOPT   = -module:$(MOD)
#OBJOPT   = -object:$*.o
HDF5     = /opt/hdf5/hdf5/lib
MODOPT   = -module $(MOD)
OBJOPT   = -o $*.o
#-----Users: end of block ----------------

TARGET = $(BIN)/mohidbase1.lib

CC       = ifort
CCFLAGS  = -c -fpp -nologo
AR       = ar rc
#--------Users: fill these lines with your sourcesafe data-------------
SERVER   = 
USER     = 
PASS     = 
SOSHOME  = 
PROJECT  = Mohid_Base_1
GET      = soscmd -command GetFile \
           -server $(SERVER):8890 \
           -name $(USER) -password $(PASS) \
           -database "W:\SourceSafe\Mohid_v4\srcsafe.ini" \
           -project $(PROJECT) \
           -soshome $(SOSHOME) \
           -file 
#--------End of sourcesafe data-------------
 
#Rules to apply to a standard .o file
.f90.o:
         @$(CC) $(CCFLAGS) $< $(OBJOPT) $(MODOPT)
         @echo  $* ......... [OK]

OBJS = \
       ModuleGlobalData.o \
       ModuleTime.o \
       ModuleEnterData.o \
       ModuleFunctions.o \
       ModuleBenthos.o \
       ModuleCEQUALW2.o \
       ModuleTimeSerie.o \
       ModuleDischarges.o \
       ModuleDrawing.o \
       ModuleLUD.o \
       ModuleWaterQuality.o \
       ModuleSedimentQuality.o \
       ModuleLife.o \
       ModuleInterface.o \
       ModuleHydroIntegration.o \
       ModuleLightExtinction.o \
       ModuleStopWatch.o \
       ModuleTriangulation.o \
       ModuleHDF5.o \
       ModuleDrainageNetwork.o \
       ModuleProfile.o

.PHONY: all clean

all: $(TARGET)
	@echo
	@echo Finished building $(TARGET)
	@echo

$(TARGET) : $(OBJS)
	@$(AR) $(TARGET) $(OBJS)
	@echo  $(TARGET) ....... [OK]

clean : 
	@-$(DEL) *.o $(MOD)/*.mod $(BIN)/*.lib
 	@echo $(TARGET) ......... [Erased]

#This command here gets out of sourcesafe the latest version
sos: $(OBJS:.o=)

$(OBJS:.o=)::
        @-$(GET) $@.f90
        @echo  $@.f90 ....... [Updated]

#--------Dependencies list-------------

ModuleGlobalData.o : ModuleGlobalData.f90

ModuleTime.o : ModuleGlobalData.o \
              ModuleTime.f90

ModuleEnterData.o : ModuleTime.o \
                   ModuleEnterData.f90

ModuleFunctions.o : ModuleEnterData.o \
                   ModuleFunctions.f90

ModuleBenthos.o : ModuleEnterData.o \
                 ModuleBenthos.f90

ModuleCEQUALW2.o : ModuleFunctions.o \
                  ModuleCEQUALW2.f90

ModuleTimeSerie.o : ModuleEnterData.o \
                   ModuleTimeSerie.f90

ModuleDischarges.o : ModuleFunctions.o \
                    ModuleTimeSerie.o \
                    ModuleDischarges.f90

ModuleDrawing.o : ModuleFunctions.o \
                 ModuleDrawing.f90

ModuleLUD.o : ModuleGlobalData.o \
             ModuleLUD.f90

ModuleWaterQuality.o : ModuleFunctions.o \
                      ModuleLUD.o \
                      ModuleWaterQuality.f90

ModuleSedimentQuality.o : ModuleFunctions.o \
                         ModuleLUD.o \
                         ModuleSedimentQuality.f90

ModuleLife.o : ModuleFunctions.o \
              ModuleLife.f90

ModuleInterface.o : ModuleWaterQuality.o \
                   ModuleSedimentQuality.o \
                   ModuleCEQUALW2.o \
                   ModuleLife.o \
                   ModuleBenthos.o \
                   ModuleInterface.f90

ModuleHydroIntegration.o : ModuleTime.o \
                          ModuleHydroIntegration.f90

ModuleLightExtinction.o : ModuleFunctions.o \
                         ModuleTimeSerie.o \
                         ModuleLightExtinction.f90

ModuleStopWatch.o : ModuleTime.o \
                   ModuleStopWatch.f90

ModuleTriangulation.o : ModuleGlobalData.o \
                       ModuleTriangulation.f90

#The following module requires the HDF5 mod files
ModuleHDF5.o : ModuleGlobalData.o \
              ModuleHDF5.f90
	@$(CC) $(CCFLAGS) -I$(HDF5) $*.f90 $(OBJOPT) $(MODOPT)
	@echo  $* ......... [OK]

ModuleDrainageNetwork.o : ModuleDischarges.o \
                         ModuleLightExtinction.o \
                         ModuleStopWatch.o \
                         ModuleInterface.o \
                         ModuleDrainageNetwork.f90

ModuleProfile.o : ModuleEnterData.o \
                 ModuleHDF5.o \
                 ModuleProfile.f90

#--------End of dependencies list---------

ADCP to AVU

SHELL = /bin/sh 

#CCCPEV (Cross-Compiler, Cross-Platform Environment Variables)
CC=gcc
CCFLAGS=-c
LCFLAGS= 
OCFLAG=-o 
RM=del
H=h
C=c
O=o
A=exe
D=tds
L=lib

#Files list
TARGET=adcp_avu.$(A)
SRC=adcp_avu_this.$(C) readstring.$(C)
OBJ=$(SRC:.$(C)=.$(O))
LIB=
HDR=$(SRC:.$(C)=.$(H))

#Action "make all"
.PHONY=all
all : $(TARGET)
	-$(RM) $(OBJ) $(^:.$(A)=.$(D)) 

$(TARGET) : $(LIB) $(OBJ)
	$(CC) $(LCFLAGS) $(OCFLAG)$@ $^

$(LIB) : 
	@echo Warning: $@ is missing.

%.$(O) : %.$(C)
	$(CC) $(CCFLAGS) $<

#Action "make clean"
.PHONY=clean
clean :
	-$(RM) $(OBJ) $(TARGET) $(TARGET:.$(A)=.$(D))

#Dependencies list
%.$(C) : %.$(H)  #Fortran is %.$(H) : %.$(O)
adcp_avu_this.$(O) : readstring.$(H)

Mururoa

Here's another sample makefile made for \\guillaume\projects\mururoa based on *NIX_platforms and on this tutorial.

SHELL = /bin/sh 

#Suffixes which we'll be working on
.SUFFIXES: .cpp .o

#windows/linux bash commands
COPY = xcopy /-Y
DEL = del /Q 

BIN = ../bin
INC = ../inc
SRC = .
OBJ = .
LIB = ../lib 

CC       = gcc
CCFLAGS  = -c -I$(INC)
LFLAGS   = -L$(LIB)
CPP      = g++

#Rules to apply to a standard .o file
.cpp.o:
	$(CC) $(CCFLAGS) ./$<

OBJS = \
       prog_3d.o      \
       prog_prm.o     \
       prog_io.o      \
       prog_cdf_out.o \
       prog_cdf.o     \
       prog_blc.o     \
       prog_all.o     \
       msnemo.o	 

INCS = \
       $(INC)/StdAfx.h     \
       $(INC)/prog_3d.h    \
       $(INC)/prog_all.h   \
       $(INC)/prog_blc.h   \
       $(INC)/prog_boo.h   \
       $(INC)/prog_cdf.h   \
       $(INC)/prog_cdf_out.h   \
       $(INC)/prog_ind.h   \
       $(INC)/prog_io.h    \
       $(INC)/prog_prm.h   \
       $(INC)/prog_mai.h   \
       $(INC)/prog_switches.h  \ 

LIBS = \
       $(LIB)/netcdf.lib

#Compiles the full solution and cleans the intermediate files
all: msnemo postclean 

#Makes the main executable
#links the object files against the libraries
msnemo: $(OBJS)
	$(CPP) $(LFLAGS) -o $(BIN)/$@.exe $(OBJS) $(LIBS)

#Cleans to the original distro
clean:
	-$(DEL) *.o
 
#Cleans everything except binaries, source and object files
postclean:

#Installs the binaries in the right places of the system
install:

#Dependencies
prog_3d.o: $(INCS)
prog_prm.o: $(INCS)
prog_io.o: $(INCS)
prog_cdf_out.o: $(INCS)
prog_cdf.o: $(INCS)
prog_blc.o: $(INCS)
prog_all.o: $(INCS)
msnemo.o: $(INCS)

Troubleshoots

use DFWIN

This is a windows platform specific library. It cannot be ported to Linux. To build the code in linux you need to change it first. This is currently(20061201) the case in ModuleGlueHDF5. If you get an error attempting to make it in windows, first make sure you're calling make inside an Intel Fortran Development Console, which is where all the environment variables are correct.

ifconsol

If you get an error about an "ifconsol", then it's probably because you have incorrect environment variables. Under windows, make sure you're inside an Intel Fortran Development Console.

Other references

  1. The Wikipedia article.
  2. The GNUMake documentation. A classic standard.
  3. Here's a popular tutorial.
  4. The 20060629 workshop powerpoint.